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Electron physics

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A large potential difference is applied to the anode, positively charged electrode, near the filament so that it directs a stream of electrons from the white hot filament at a speed close to the speed of light. The process of directing the electrons from a hot filament is referred to as Thermionic emission. A part of the anode acts as a target and is mainly made of tungsten or molybdenum and it is where electrons hit as they come from the filament to produce X-rays. Tungsten and molybdenum are preferred because of the high temperatures involved in the process though there is a mechanism of cooling that helps improve the efficiency of the tubes.When the voltage that speeds up the movement of electrons form the filament to the target is increased, the speed of the electrons increases and they have more energy thus they produce X-ray photons with high energy through Bremsstrahlung radiation. Most of the electrons produced possess energy that is enough to release X-ray photons, so the process becomes more efficient.When the tungsten target is operated at three different potential differences, the results in the spectrum graph show that peak of the hump moves upwards in the left direction as the voltage is increased with the excitation lines staying in their original positions. The peak moves up and to the left because as the voltage is increased more X-ray photons are released, which have low frequencies and high energies and the result is that the peak of the hump shifts to the left and to a lower value of the wavelength or high frequency. A change in the voltage has no effect on the wavelengths. Also, when voltage is increased while using different materials, the peak of the hump moves upwards in the left direction but along different excitation lines.When the current flowing in the filament is altered, it changes the filament temperature which determines the number of electrons that are emitted. Thus, a change in current has no effect on the wavelength but it results into an increase in the intensity as shown in the graph.Scatter refers to a way of interaction between the X-rays and their atoms when X-ray photons bounce off the atoms after they have failed to be absorbed or changed in form. It is only their direction of travel that is alteredPhotoelectric effect is the process by which an X-ray photon hits its atom to give up energy
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