The strengthening should lead to improved overall health and wellness. A throw is a combination of a kinetic chain of movements (Fleisig et al. In an overhead throw, the lower arm and wrist are the final elements of the throw and add a distance to the throw of up to a few meters. The estimate is that that the wrist and lower arm contribute approximately 5% to the total distance of the throw. A study on baseball throwers (Hirashima et al. 2008) looked at the torque produced at the shoulder. They found that distal joint motions, such as elbow extension and wrist flexion, are mainly accelerated from the proximal joints, such as the shoulder. If the proximal joint is trained, then the motions at the distal end will also increase and will result in a higher throwing velocity. It follows that towards increasing throwing velocity, a strength-training program will be helpful. It also follows that a strength-training program can be devised and implemented to improve the velocity of a throw. In order to increase muscle strength, the muscle must be forced to operate beyond its normal function. Previous studies have compared the effects of kinetic and isotonic exercises on achieving muscular overload (Wooden 1992). These studies have concluded that isotonic exercises produce favorable outcomes on shoulder torque and overall throwing velocity. However, these studies do not combine the lower arm strength and handgrip strength components of a throw. . The Effects of Strengthening Programs on the Hand and Lower Arms in Improving the Distance and Velocity of a Throw.
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