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Educational Technology: Instructional Design and Development

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Numerous instructional design concepts have undergone development over the past half a century. Even though the particular blend of processes every so often differs between the instructional models, the majority of the models include instructional problems, along with the designs, developments and assessment of the instructional measures and the materials required to address these issues. A history of instructional design procedures goes as far back as the Second World War. As the war progressed various psychologists and educators with training and expertise in conducting experimental research were required to study and come up with training materials for the military services. The people tasked with this endeavour, greatly influenced the characteristics of the materials used in the training that were created, constructing majority of the work they did on the instructional principles associated with research and theory in regard to instruction and the behaviour of humans.Three main domains of learning exist which are supposed to be acknowledged by all the teachers who should utilize them in the construction of lessons. These domains include cognitive, affective and psychomotor where every domain has a taxonomy associated with it. The classification linked to cognition is usually denoted as Bloom’s Classification regardless of the fact that David Krathwohl was among the authors who came up with this work. The other taxonomies are the affective domain associated with David Krathwohl as well as the psychomotor that is linked to Anita Harrow.Most of the veteran teachers are not aware that the cognitive domain that was initially developed in 1956 went through huge revisions in 2001. In the original work on the cognitive domain, behavioural objectives were separated into subsets that were organized into taxonomies and arranged based on their difficulty, from the simplest to the most complex. Among the main changes that were included to the new domain is that the two uppermost types of cognition have been reversed, and therefore the domain includes, remembrance, understanding, application, analysis, evaluation and creation.The affective domain can also be divided into an order that is concerned with feelings and emotional state, that is organized form the simplest feelings to the most intricate ones. This hierarchy includes reception, response, value, organization as well as characterization. Finally, the
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