Hence,“ the method of EBM and the knowledge gained from population-based studies may not be the best way to assess certain CAM practices” (Tonelli & Callahan 2001, p.1213) which take into consideration illness and healing within the context of a particular individual only. Currently, however, the methods of developing knowledge within CAM have limitations, are subject to bias and different interpretations. It is essential that CAM should develop a rigorous alternative epistemic framework of knowledge and method based on its philosophy if it hopes to be accepted as a valid medical discipline by orthodox practitioners. According to Long (2002), monitoring the achievement of desired outcomes of research is essential. The effects of a CAM intervention are of three types: those arising from the philosophy and practice of health and healing, factors emerging from the relationship between the patient and the practitioner, and the factors resulting from the interventions used to enhance the healing process. This delineation of effects is relevant to conventional medicine also. For the full effect of a CAM discipline to be recognized, the measurement of all three types of outcomes is required. Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
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