Routers aren’t needed for data transmission between same LAN. They are usually required for communication between different networks.Step 1: Internet is a packet switched network. Information across the internet is broken down into small packets. Breaking the data into packets, routing packets across internet (done by IP) and recombining them at the other end (done by TCP) comprise the first step.Step 2: The packet size should be limited because of various reasons including limited hardware capacities. Each packet is given a header that contains a variety of information such as the order of packets. As TCP creates each packet, it calculates and adds to the header a checksum, which is a number used at the receiving end to determine error occurred during transmission.Step 3: Each packet is put into separate IP network which contains the addressing information that tells the internet where to send the data. Envelopes for given data have same addressing information for ease of reassembling at receiving end. Every IP address consists of four numbers separated by periods called dots.Step 4: The DNS (Domain Name Server) is used to convert textual internet address into IP numeric equivalent. DNS establishes a hierarchy of domains, which are groups of computers on the internet. Domain name and hostname consist of information about host computer, information about organisation which identifies the recipient network and the specific email box.(Gralla et al, 1998) Modem: It basically carries out modulation and demodulation of outgoing and incoming signals respectively. It takes data from PC and transfers it to the telephone line. Modulation is carried out to enable data compatibility while travelling on. Digital Communication System.
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