Similarly, in 1992, U. and French teams completed genetic maps of mouse and human and mouse followed by the publication of a complete genetic linkage map of the human genome. One more important finding was in 1995, researchers at Whitehead published a physical map of the human genome containing 15,000 markers.Later in 1996, An international consortium publicly released the complete genome sequence of the yeast S. Later Yoshihide Hayashizakis group at RIKEN completed the first set of full-length mouse cDNAs. In 1997, Fred Blattner and Guy Plunkett completed the DNA sequence of E. In 1999, British, Japanese, and U. researchers completed the first sequence of a human chromosome, number 22 and in 2000, Celera and academic collaborators sequenced the 180-Mb genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Finally in 2001, The HGP consortium published its working draft (Nature,2001), and Celera also published its draft on human genome (Science, 2001).According to the principle of segregation of Mendel, for any particular trait, the pair of alleles of each parent separate and only one allele passes from each parent on to an offspring. Which allele in a parents pair of alleles is inherited is a matter of chance. According to the principle of independent assortment, different pairs of alleles are passed to offspring independently of each other. The result is that new combinations of genes present in neither parent are possible. For example, a pea plants inheritance of the ability to produce purple flowers instead of white ones does not make it more likely that it will also inherit the ability to produce yellow pea seeds in contrast to green ones. Likewise, the principle of independent assortment explains why the human inheritance of a particular eye color does not increase or decrease the likelihood of having 6 fingers on each hand. These principles could not answer our queries. Today, we know this deviation from Mendelian principles is due to the fact that the genes for independently assorted traits are located on different chromosomes. Modification of Mendels principles was better understood with increase in knowledge of the chromosomes. For example, Mendels studies emphasized genes that behave independently from one another during transmission to offspring. But we now know that genes are transmitted as constituents of chromosomes, each of which carries many different genes, which sheds light on the tendency of
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