Similarly, i 1992, U and French teams completed genetic maps of mouse and human and mouse followed by the publication of a complete genetic linkage map of the human genome. Oe more important finding was in 1995, rsearchers at Whitehead published a physical map of the human genome containing 15,000 markers. Lter in 1996, A international consortium publicly released the complete genome sequence of the yeast S. Later Yoshihide Hayashizakis group at RIKEN completed the first set of full-length mouse cDNAs. I 1997, Fed Blattner and Guy Plunkett DNA sequence of E.
I 1999, Bitish, Jpanese, ad U. rsearchers completed the first sequence of a human chromosome, nmber 22 and in 2000, Clera and academic collaborators sequenced the 180-Mb genome of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Fnally in 2001, Te HGP consortium published its working draft (Nature, 2001), ad Celera also published its draft on human genome (Science, 2001). Acording to the principle of segregation of Mendel, fr any particular trait, te pair of alleles of each parent separate and only one allele passes from each parent on offspring.
Which allele in a parents pair of alleles is inherited is a matter of chance. According to the principle of independent assortment, dfferent pairs of alleles are passed to offspring independently of each other. The result is that new combinations of genes present in neither parent are possible. For example, apea plants inheritance of the ability to produce purple flowers instead of white ones does not make it more likely that it will also inherit the ability to produce yellow pea seeds in contrast to green ones. te of independent assortment explains why the human inheritance of a particular eye color does not increase or decrease the likelihood of having 6 fingers on each hand.
Tese principles could not answer our queries. Tday, w know this deviation from Mendelian principles is due to the fact that the genes for independently assorted traits are located on different chromosomes. Modification of Mendels principles was better understood with increase in knowledge of the chromosomes. Fr example, Mndels studies emphasized genes that behave independently from one another during transmission offspring. Bt now know that genes are transmitted as constituents of chromosomes, ech of which carries many different genes, wich sheds light on the tendency of. ..
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