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The Dani, Papua New Guinea

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The male pigs are castrated so as to control breeding and increase their sizes. Eery Dani member participates in food production. Hwever, te members cultivate their farms using manual labor whereby they incorporate inferior methods and technologies. Seet potatoes are planted as monocrops in the irrigated fields whereby the soils are dug using sharp poles. Teir harvest is enormous whereby it supports a population-density of more than 400/square mile (Zimmer & Amakoshi, 2007). Te productivity could also be expanded since most of their land is not put into use.

irrigation systems used for the rice plots could support a population-density of more than 1000/square mile (Zimmer & Amakoshi, 2007). Te production system of sweet potato by the Dani is a clear representation of the pre industrial agriculture. I the coastal and riverine regions, fsh and other shellfish form part of their diet. Acording to Schwimmer (1997) trading provides raw materials for production of weapons, frm tools, rtual objects and ornaments. Tading is mostly carried out by the lowland communities found in the forest and the local communities for exchanges.

Te Dani residents export pigs and salt for receivership of shells, hrdwoods and stones. Te activity is carried out using market principle whereby bargain is essential since the transactions are immediate and impersonal. Te political landscape of the Dani is very diverse than the common ones. Te Extended family constitutes members of big confederations which contain individuals close to 1000 in number. Te group consists of siblings from the most important men in the society. Te confederations consist of the largest stable which have associated territories and are most peaceful social-units (Schwimmer, 1997).

Te confederations are normally conjoined into alliances. Te alliances constitute the biggest social units due to the presence of wage wars among alliances. De to the frequent wage disparities, tese alliances are constantly into wars (Schwimmer, 1997). Een though the confederations may appear stable based on their territory and memberships, te alliances can from time to time change. Ladership in the Dani community is informal based on appointments from within siblings and from the political units. Mny of the decisions are struck by consensus specific “big men.

”The big men lead based on the standing and respect...

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