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Current Applications and Development of Catalyst for the Synthesis of Highly Functional Organic Carbonates Essay Example

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Current Applications and Development of Catalyst for the Synthesis of Highly Functional Organic Carbonates

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Organic carbonates are used in the manufacture of a large number of other industrially important products, mainly polyurethanes and polycarbonates. They are employed in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, herbicides, pesticides, electrolytic fluids, polyimide films, etc., in addition to being used as solvents and fuel additives (3). They are environmentally benign, they are replacing toxic organic solvents, methylating agents and carbonating agents such as methyl halides, dimethyl sulphate and phosgene (3). Other variations of organic carbonates also exist. For instance, aliphatic polycarbonates are biodegradable and hence are medically important (4). They are also used as matrix materials, thermoplastic additives and films in addition to being used for the production of industrially important materials such as specialty polyurethanes (4). Glycerol based carbonate polymers also have a wide range of industrial, pharmaceutical and chemical applications. Polycarbonate esters and other carbonate polymers are used as antibacterial compounds and fluorescent tags in the biomedical field (5).Phosgenation technique, oxidative carbonylation of phenols and alcohols, reaction of urea with phenols and alcohols, reaction of carbon dioxide and oxiranes, and transformation of inorganic metal carbonates are some of the most commonly used methods for synthesis of organic carbonates.The aim of this paper is to study the development of catalysts in the synthesis of organic carbonates. Therefore, this paper will mainly focus on the types of catalysts used and the yield of organic carbonates while briefly discussing the various synthesis procedures. However, it will be difficult to outline the development of catalysts for all organic carbonates over time. Therefore, to narrow down the research, the paper focuses on the catalysts used in the synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC). DMC is the simplest organic carbonate and is one of the most industrially useful carbonates (2). It is also used for the synthesis of many other organic carbonates, apart from being used as an organic solvent and fuel additive. It is not ecotoxic and hence, is an environmentally benign compound.The report first provides a brief summary of catalysts used in the synthesis of various organic carbonates and the synthesis procedures. It then goes on to explain the development of catalysts for DMC

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Reference

1

1980

Oxidation of CO with O2 in methanol

Carbon monoxide, oxygen, methanol

Cuprous chloride

15

20

2

1998

Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide using trimethyl orthoacetate

Carbon dioxide, trimethyl orthoacetate

Bu2Sn(OMe)2

20

21

3

1998

Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide using trimethyl orthoacetate

Carbon dioxide, trimethyl orthoacetate

Bu3Sn(OMe)

1

21

4

1998

Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide using trimethyl orthoacetate

Carbon dioxide, trimethyl orthoacetate

Me2Sn(OMe)2

7

21

5

1998

Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide using trimethyl orthoacetate

Carbon dioxide, trimethyl orthoacetate

Bu2Sn(OMe)2 with Bu4NOTs additive

48

21

6

1998

Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide using trimethyl orthoacetate

Carbon dioxide, trimethyl orthoacetate

Bu2Sn(OMe)2 with Bu4PI additive

70

21

7

1998

Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide using trimethyl orthoacetate

Carbon dioxide, trimethyl orthoacetate

Cp2Ti(OMe)2 with Bu4PI additive

37

21

8

1998

Catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide using trimethyl orthoacetate

Carbon dioxide, trimethyl orthoacetate

Cp*2Ti(OMe)2 with Bu4PI additive

47

21

9

1999

Transformation of carbon dioxide using acetals

Carbon dioxide, acetals

Bu2Sn(OMe)2

57

22

10

1999

Transformation of carbon dioxide using acetals

Carbon dioxide, acetals

Bu2Sn(OMe)2

88

22

11

2003

One pot synthesis from supercritical carbon dioxide

Ethylene oxide, methanol, carbon dioxide

Mixture of KI and K­2CO3

73

24

12

2005

Urea methanolysis

Urea, methanol

ZnO

30

25

13

2007

Urea methanolysis

Urea, methanol

catalytic distillation over ZnO-Al2O3 catalyst

70

26

14

2007

Transesterification of methanol with ethylene carbonate

Ethylene carbonate, methanol

MgO-CeO2 mixed oxide catalyst modified with ionic liquid

56.6

28

15

2010

Direct synthesis from methanol and carbon dioxide

Methanol, carbon dioxide

KCl doped ZrO2

7.2

29

16

2011

Direct synthesis from methanol and carbon dioxide

Methanol, carbon dioxide

CexZr1-xO2 with a dehydrating agent

10.4

30

17

2009

Direct synthesis from methanol and carbon dioxide

Methanol, carbon dioxide

Co-Schiff Base/Zeolite

25.4

32

18

2012

Transesterification of propylene carbonate with methanol

Propylene carbonate, methanol

La modified Hydrotalcite

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16

19

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DMC synthesis from methyl carbamate and methanol in batch reactor

Methanol, methyl carbamate

ZnCl2

33.6

34

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preview essay on Current Applications and Development of Catalyst for the Synthesis of Highly Functional Organic Carbonates
  • Pages: 20 (5000 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Chemistry
  • Level: Ph.D.
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