Credential fraud is not only a modern problem plaguing businesses, instances of misrepresentation have been experienced since at least the 1970s. Research indicates that fraudulent employment activities involved degree forgery and the use of diploma mills on black markets. These mills offered the creation of official-looking degrees from major universities across the nation, costing, at the time, around $1500. In todays market, this would be valued at approximately $3200 (Slater, 2006). During the 1970s, job candidates without valid qualifications took advantage of the weaknesses in various company hiring policies and considered the risk of credential fraud to be virtually negligible (Cooper, 1977). This trend has continued to grow as access to forged university degrees was made available by Internet applications and diploma mills.Credential fraud is not only a North American phenomenon, instances of employment-related misrepresentations have been witnessed in Europe and Canada as well. Mike Comer, chief executive of the Maxima Group, a background investigational organization based in the United Kingdom, conducted a research study regarding credential fraud in America, and suggests that nearly 75 percent of curriculum vitae (the resume) has shown some sort of falsification; both minor and blatant (Donkin, 1998). A somewhat alarming statistic, this study indicates that most instances are not outrageous fabrication, rather most instances are simply half-truths, such as indicating that a degree program was completed when in reality the employment candidate has not achieved graduation.instances of "material misstatements, embellishments, or downright lies" (Edgecliffe-Johnson). This tends to support the research conducted by the United Kingdom-based Maxima Group, pointing toward a sharp increase in credential fraud most closely associated with American workers.The question as to why application misrepresentation occurs can likely be answered by todays advancements in technology. With modern applications available to todays job-seeker, such as advanced printing equipment and internet-based diploma mills (agencies offering genuine-appearing diplomas for high costs), it is becoming significantly easier for potential employment candidates to create a stellar-lookingFurther, many businesses today lack the internal process controls necessary to competently select qualified, knowledgeable, and credible employees (Stamler, 1997).