Anhedonia; which is complete lack of interest in activities that were previously found pleasurable, difficulty concentrating, faces problems in remembering things and indecisiveness. The individual faces gross psychomotor retardation; as his movements slow down, he or she may feel tired all the time and loses his or her self-esteem. The phase is characterized by crying spells, persistent sadness, negative thoughts; which are usually about death and suicidal ideation. (Moore & Jefferson, 2004)The individual’ s social life is hampered as well and begins avoiding a social situation. The individual experiences increased often displaced an amount of guilt along with feelings of worthlessness and dejection.
The individual may either lose weight due to lack of appetite; however, in some cases, the individual may indulge in binge eating and may gain the excessive amount of weight that may result in obesity if the depression is not treated in time. The individual has sleep disturbances and like the eating disorder, he or she may either experience insomnia or hypersomnia that is the individual either sleep too little or excessively. Either way, individuals are likely commit suicide during the depressive and during the manic phase, they can do serious damage to their health by abusing drugs and alcohol or indulging in unsafe sexual activity.
(Moore & Jefferson, 2004)The individual may experience these symptoms simultaneously or even these can overlap each other resulting in a state that is often called the “ mixed state” . Throughout the course of the disorder, the individual may also have a phase, which is normal and may experience a normal level of mood. However, before making the diagnosis that an individual from bipolar disorder, clinicians must rule the following disorders. There are numerous psychological and physiological differentials involved in the diagnosis of Bi-polar disorder.
Clinicians must make sure that the individual is not suffering from the Borderline Personality disorder or Major depressive disorder.
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