The second chapter that includes literature review compiles some important concepts and research findings that are relevant to the topic. Te third chapter that includes results and findings describes the costs and benefits as well as threats to urban and peri-urban agriculture in the world. Te final chapter that includes conclusions lists important policy recommendations to address the probable problems in the sector. Ubanization or shifting of people from rural to the urban areas is known to be a trend that has persisted for several years (Deelstra and Nijwening, Cnsequently, te impact of rapid and unplanned expansion of cities include environmental related problems such as exhaustion of natural resources, dstruction of forests and landscapes as well as accumulation of solid wastes.
Te Social related problems include congestion and unhealthy food habits. O the other hand; eonomical related problems include poverty, husehold food insecurity and unemployment. Uban and peri-urban agriculture is a household coping strategy during the food price hikes and production shortages (Deelstra and Nijwening, 1997). Te produce is consumed by the families, poviding direct access a variety of fresh food items (SAFE Alliance, 1994).
Ecess produce can be sold in nearby markets and, sreet food stands. Pst-harvest handling of urban farming inquires relatively low cost because the farmers often have direct access to the market places. Sort transportation distance, lss packaging, sorage and refrigeration requirements are characteristics which in turn results to fresher and nutritious foods at competitive market prices as compared to the rural holdings (SAFE Alliance, 1994). Vgetables and annual crops are identified as the most suitable type of crops to be in urban areas (SAFE Alliance, 1994).
Poductivity of urban gardens can be increased to about 15 times higher than the rural holdings. I can annually provide 20 kg/m2 of food, ad one job (per 100 m2) in gardening, iput supply, mrketing and value-adding. Tis could benefit those disadvantaged groups in the cities (FAO, 2014). Hwever, uban and peri-urban agriculture is not included in government policy frameworks, uban planning or public assistance programs because these benefits are not calculated in national accounting in many countries. Husehold food security status was in South Asian countries after the...
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