Existentialism began in the first half of 19th century with Kierkegaard, wo was concerned with the individual’s subjective experience to religious faith, ad criticized Hegel’s approach of analyzing the existence of individuals in an abstract and impersonal way. Te school of existentialism gained prominence with Edmund Husserl, Mrtin Heidegger, Jan Paul Sartre, ad Albert Camus. Cmus believed that life was essentially absurd and that the modern world is full of injustice. Aalytic philosophy played an important role in the English speaking academic world since the beginning of 20th Kantian philosophy a division occurred between philosophies practiced in European and Anglo-America.
Hgel introduced an Idealist direction to Continental philosophy, wich took an Existentialist turn through Nietzsche and Heidegger, bfore entering a phase of uncertainties with post-structuralism. Brtrand Russell and G. EMoore rebelled against British idealism. Ifluential Analytic thinkers of the period include Wilfred Sellars, Rchard Rotry, Rbert Random, Jhn McDowell and Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer. Aalytic philosophy got fillip through German philosopher Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) with his book “Begriffsschrift” published in 1879. Fege introduced a rigorous logic with a combination of mathematics, lgic, ad language.
Aother turn in philosophical expression in learning emerged with British philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) who combined Frege’s logical insight with David Hume’s empiricism. Rssell began his philosophical career as an Idealist, cnverted to empiricism by G. EMoore, ad to follower of mathematical logic with the influence of A. Achange in direction initiated by Wittgenstein and propagated by Gilbert Ryle (1900-76), t mitigate traditional problems of philosophy, trough careful study of language, pved the way to the development of ‘Linguistic philosophy. Wttgenstein transmitted the theory meaning, ad argued that sentences must reflect reality in the same way as a picture does.
“hrough analysis a true statement would be shown to consist in elementary particles which pictured the world and logical constants such as ‘if’, ‘ot’, ‘nd’ and ‘or’. Asentence, wich did not picture the world, ws devoid of meaning. ”Vienna circle, ative from mid 1920s, payed a major role in the continental philosophy, wth scientists like Moritz Schlick (1982-1936), Rdolph Carnap. ..
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