Sex attitudes before this famine had remained open where they were often earthy. There was celebration of both men’s and women’s sexuality (McCormick, 2009). The church came in to provide the ideological concept toward sexual repression ensuring the pattern in late marriages. This is what came to be known as the permanent celibacy that turned to be a norm in Ireland to the period up to the 2nd part of the 20th century. Under normal circumstances, altering the sexual mores did not prove to be easy. The catastrophe that almost the population almost halved from 8 to 4.5 million in 1841 and 1861 consecutively was not any normal circumstances and undertaking normal lives after the famine was challenging, impossible (McCormick, 2009).This is where the church was able to chip in to spread explanations of traditional education for the catastrophe. They provided spiritual consolation and mainly directed to the survivors aimed in consolidating the church’s position. Coupled with the absence of clear economical role in women and the current situation offered the church an opportunity to get intimate involvement in the Irish family lives. Priests’ numbers that had dwindled over the past decades rose from the dominant established farmer milieu. There was a dramatic rise between 1861 and 1911 during the time when the entire population was declining. Come 1911, the former ratios of priest to Catholics had moved to 1:210 while in 1962, 2% of male, single men, of ages 45 to 54 were either monks or priests (Cronin, 2006). The church was positioned to preach the centrality of family and marriage and the evils of sexual related activities that were not aimed to procreation whilst at the same time upholding the Virgin Mary who formed the model among all women. Women acquired new roles as transmitters in the Catholic Church emphasizing that sexual activity outside wedlock or those activities that were not directed to conceiving was evil.Under the sexual repression in the late 19th century and the early 20th century, it came to suppress the traditional methods of contraceptives. Literature from those days enlightens us that women controlled their births through fashioning a form of cervical cap developed from bees’ wax. Use of tree barks and herbs was also evident as a way of inducing abortions (Tombs, 2006). However, this entire information was suppressed, although midwives were available
Cronin, M. G. (2006). Impure thoughts: sexuality, Catholicism and literature in twentieth- century Ireland. : .
Lalo, A. (2011). Libertinage in Russian culture and literature a bio-history of sexualities at the threshold of modernity. Leiden: Brill.
Matich, O. (2005). Erotic utopia: the decadent imagination in Russias fin-de-siècle. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press.
McCormick, L. (2009). Regulating sexuality women in twentieth-century Northern Ireland. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press ;.
Tombs, D. (2006). Explorations in reconciliation new directions in theology. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate Pub..
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples