However, Mullan and Markland (1997) had earlier demonstrated the exact opposite. Vlachopoulos (2010) attributes this contradiction to differential functioning in groups and proposes that there be evidence of measurement invariance (Millsap and Kwok 2004). Hoyle and Smith (1994) concur and put forth that if measurement invariance is not there, there will be a misinterpretation of group differences.The younger adults exist under social pressure and culturally accepted standards of beauty and thinness for females, and muscular physique for males (Presnell et al 2004). Ingledew and Markland (2006) conducted a research and found that appearance and weight motives corresponded to external motivation and, therefore, less participation. Health and fitness corresponded to greater identified regulation and, therefore, more participation. Social engagement corresponded with intrinsic regulation.Body image in younger adults may play a role in their exercise behavior. MacCabe and Ricciardelli (2003) found that the percentage of boys wanting to be thinner was 17% to 30% while between 13 percent to 48% want a larger body. Exercise is a method of managing weight. Pope et al (2004) conducted similar research and concurred with the earlier findings on body size in young adults. Males and females exercise behaviour regulation.
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