The other complications centre on oesophagitis that leads to the oesophageal bleeding and oesophageal ulcer, Barrett’s oesophagus, and esophageal cancer (adenocarcinoma).The history examines heartburn and its connection to eating, whereby a history of vomiting, nausea, or regurgitation should raise a red flag for the physician to probe delayed gastric emptying. Relief brought by self medication may indicate that the symptoms are acid-related, while the absence of relief may imply that gastric acid in not responsible and further investigation is essential (Madgaonkar, 2011).The disease process of PUD is essentially multifactorial based on risk factors and aetiology and ulcers, whereby ulcers occur out of hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid and pepsin. Largely, the understanding of the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease centre on abnormalities within the secretion of pepsin and gastric acid. Helicobacter pylori and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered to possess synergistic impacts on gastric mucosal damage given that they both considerably and independently heighten the risk of gastric and duodenal mucosal damage and ulceration (Durai, Ruhomauly, Kerwat, & Hoque, 2009).There are four complications linked to PUD, namely: perforation; bleeding; penetration; and, obstruction. Haemorrhage can be regarded as the most frequent complication and its occurrence is on the increase relative to stenosis and perforation.During the medical history, the physician will focus on areas such as abdominal in which the patient is asked to describe the intensity, type, frequency, and duration of the pain. The physician will also pose questions regarding family medical history the patient’s lifestyle and health on areas such as stress levels, and eating habits (Madgaonkar, 2011).The pathogenesis of gallstone details three stages, namely: (1) cholesterol supersaturation in bile; (2) crystal nucleation; (3) stone growth. The losses of gallbladder muscular-wall motility, coupled with excessive sphincteric contraction are linked to gallstone formation. The reduced gallbladder motility of bile stasis yields to stone formation (Durai, Ruhomauly, Kerwat, & Hoque, 2009). The pathogenesis of cholecystitis encompasses the impaction of gallstones within the bladder neck and cystic duct.During the medical history, the physician will need to enquire about the intensity, frequency, and severity of pain. Gallstones may
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