An interesting point to be noted here is that many of the challenges faced in context of ERP in present business scenario are similar to those faced by managers during implementation of MRP 20 years ago (Shaughnessy, 2013; Brown, et al. Hence, it can be said that challenges faced during technology implementation is more related to intangible forces such as, lack of leadership, commitment, training and understanding compared to tangible forces such as, technological defects in the systems. Few of the major challenges encountered during technological installation and implementation are as follows;Proper installation and implementation of technologies such as, ERP and JIT, is an organisation-wide phenomenon, which involved similar participation from all departments and functions. So, it is essential that top management takes the lead and provide a direction for rest of the management. For example, Chang and Ho (2006) found that security challenges in an organisation were resolved with higher engagement of top management as the amount of resources spent on security went higher and overall confidence among employees and manager regarding security and its benefits also increased. Similarly, it has also been seen that lack of commitment from higher level managers resulted in improper technology implementation.Requirements of proper resources for effective integration and implementation of technologies are often underestimated. Apart from that, companies fail to realise the actual cost of software implementation and usage including outside consultation cost, labour costs, cost incurred during shifting from old software to new software and assigning new managers for projects. Thus, final revenues and profits are at times miscalculated or misjudged (McGraw Hill, n.It has been observed that in the rush to convert new systems into usable formats, companies often give less relevance to training of staff and employees at each level. Proper training is critically needed so that each employee is able to understand the technology from organisational as well as user’s perspective. While IT departments need training for providing proper technical support, business functions require the same for data management and generation of useful reports (McGraw Hill, n.A major technological challenge occurring in operations management is ineffective communication. While some organisations such as, IT and finance, are updated about every change, other
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