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Blood Coagulation analysis using (TT, PT and APTT) tests

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Thrombin helps eliminate fibrin deficiencies in the patient since thrombin is provided which act on fibrinogen and if clotting does not occur, i can be said that there is a deficiency of fibrin or fibrinogen is unable to activate. Pothrombin time is one of the tests used also to check bleeding disorders in a patient. Te difference lies in it being able to check the extrinsic pathway of clotting. Te test is usually ordered whenever there is an effect of drugs such as warfarin is to be checked, apatient suspected to lack coagulation factors such as in hemophilia and the patient shows abnormal tendency to bleed or abnormal bruising is observed in a patient.

Snce this test includes extrinsic pathway of coagulation, abetter understanding of that pathway is required. Te extrinsic pathway for coagulation consists of tissue factor, fctor vii, fctor X, fctor ii and fibrin (Tondre, 2010). S it can be performed to observe a deficiency of any of those factors. Tromboplastin is the main reagent used in this test along with calcium. Te role of thromboplastin is the activation of extrinsic pathway (Laposata, 2011).

Te steps of performing this test include: Seps similar to thrombin time are repeated by adding 0. 1ml of normal saline and plasma in test tubes placed in water bath. Ater these steps, tromboplastin and calcium are added in the test tubes containing plasma. Astopwatch is used to observe the time of visible clot formation. Sme steps are repeated for sample number 2 & 3 and the time for clot formation is observed. Tose samples taking longer than expected to form clot are mixed quickly clotting samples and then the time of clot formation is observed by repeating the steps mentioned above.

Te normal range of prothrombin time is 12-15 seconds. Smple 3 and 1 have a prothrombin time of 12 and 15 seconds which are on the borderline of both low and high ranges whereas sample 2 has a prothrombin time of 16 seconds which is a slight increase but can be ignored. Te involvement of thromboplastin and knowing that prothrombin time involves extrinsic pathway of coagulation helps us several deficiencies.

Snce we know that the extrinsic pathway involves several coagulation factors such as factor X, fctor VII, fctor II which is also known as prothrombin and fibrin helps us rule out deficiencies of these factors and hemophilia involving these factors. Tis test can be used as a simple screening test and further more complicated...

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