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Biotechnology ,Production of Lactic acid bacteria Essay Example

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Biotechnology ,Production of Lactic acid bacteria

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Lactic acid bacteria produces various compounds during fermentation including organic acids, diacetyl hydrogen peroxide and bactericidal protein that not only gives the desirable texture, colour, tastes or smell but also helps to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and other microorganisms (Lindgren, et al 1990). Lactic acid bacteria utilises carbohydrates by t two different metabolic pathways -nomo- or hetero pathways. Most LAB produce lactic acid from glucose metabolism while other LAB produce lacto carbon dioxide and ethanol ( Jay, et al 2005).Production of fermented foods is the developed countries have become extremely popular primarily because the western society appreciates traditionally fermented food products and therefore these products have huge markets in such places. From the nutritional point of view, research has successfully established that consumption of food fermented by LAB is safe for human consumption (Lindgren et al, 1990)Consumption of fermented food product has a number of health benefits such as improvement in the intestinal microbial balance, risk reduction of chronic diseases, and improvement in immunity against diseases such as allergy, asthma, atopic eczema and different cancers (Taylor, et al 2005). Studies also show that fermented food reduces bad cholesterol in human body by reducing the absorption of the bad cholesterol by the intestine and diminishing cholesterol synthesis in the liver (Kalanlzopoulos, 1997).Bacteriophages are the primary causes of fermentation failure. Bacteria like any other organisms can be infected by viruses. The presence of phage has been reported in foods, pharmaceutical and pesticide industries (Emond, et al 2007). Phage can infect LAB during fermentation processes. Such infection is caused by viruses that cause lyses in bacteria resulting in fermentation failure.Phage affecting a dairy culture was first discovered by Whitehead and Cox in 1935 however by then major improvements had been made in terms of phage genetic, ecology and environment factors. However, even to this day phage contamination occurs in biotechnology processes leading to product variability and decreased productivity ( Emond, et al 2007).Even though laboratory hygiene is top priority such initiatives do not guarantee protection against phage contamination since dairy products

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