Lactic acid bacteria produces various compounds during fermentation including organic acids, dacetyl hydrogen peroxide and bactericidal protein that not only gives the desirable texture, clour, tstes or smell but also helps to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and other microorganisms (Lindgren, e al 1990). Lctic acid bacteria utilises carbohydrates by t two different metabolic pathways -nomo- or hetero pathways. Mst LAB produce lactic acid from glucose metabolism while other LAB produce lacto carbon dioxide and ethanol ( Jay, e al 2005). Poduction of is the developed countries have become extremely popular primarily because the western society appreciates traditionally fermented food products and therefore these products have huge markets in such places.
Fom the nutritional point of view, rsearch has successfully established that consumption of food fermented by LAB is safe for human consumption (Lindgren et al, 1990)Consumption of fermented food product has a number of health benefits such as improvement in the intestinal microbial balance, rsk reduction of chronic diseases, ad improvement in immunity against diseases such as allergy, athma, aopic eczema different cancers (Taylor, e al 2005).
Studies also show that fermented food reduces bad cholesterol in human body by reducing the absorption of the bad cholesterol by the intestine and diminishing cholesterol synthesis in the liver (Kalanlzopoulos, 1997). Bcteriophages are the primary causes of fermentation failure. Bcteria like any other organisms can be infected by viruses. Te presence of phage has been reported in foods, parmaceutical and pesticide industries (Emond, e al 2007). Page can infect LAB during fermentation processes. Sch infection is caused by viruses that lyses bacteria resulting in fermentation failure.
Page affecting a dairy culture was first discovered by Whitehead and Cox in 1935 however by then major improvements had been made in terms of phage genetic, eology and environment factors. However, een to this day phage contamination occurs in biotechnology processes leading to product variability and decreased productivity ( Emond, e al 2007). Een though laboratory hygiene is top priority such initiatives do not guarantee protection against phage contamination since dairy products. ..
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