In latent tuberculosis, te organism is present, bt usually without any signs and symptoms or any radiographic or bacteriologic evidence of tuberculosis infection. Hwever, te annual risk of developing active disease is five to fifteen percent. Lfetime risk increases to approximately fifty percent in HIV co-infected persons. Mcobacterium tuberculosis may also lead to extra pulmonary tuberculosis, wich include infection in the following; bnes and joints (pots disease), mninges (meningitis), gnital tract, adomen, pricardium, ee (ocular tuberculosis), arenal gland (Addison’s disease) and on the skin. Mcobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is agent of tuberculosis.
I is a facultative intracellular bacterium. Oher members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex include; Mcobacterium bovis found mainly in cattle and man and Mycobacterium caprae found in goats. Tis bacteria is non-motile. I also lacks a capsule and does not form spores. I only grows in the presence of oxygen, terefore referred to as a strict aerobe. I is strongly acid fast and is rod shaped. I requires enriched culture media that is egg based media or agar based media or broth. Mcobacterium tuberculosis has high in its cell wall and has a slow generation time.
I is spread from person to person through the air (Allman 2007, pTuberculosis is sensitive to various chemical and physical agents. Te treatment of tuberculosis involves first and second line drugs. Teatment mainly involves combination chemotherapy to prevent emergence of resistance and to eradicate the infection within the shortest time possible. Te number of drugs should be kept minimal to reduce the incidence of adverse effects (Dixon & Donnelly 2011, p If monotherapy is given to patients with large actively dividing bacillary population, te relatively small number of resistant mutants already present overgrows the drug sensitive bacilli.
Frst line drugs are the most effective and less toxic. Tey include isoniazid, rfampicin, sreptomycin, Prazinamide and Ethambutol. Mcobacterium tuberculosis is also sensitive to second line drugs. Tese are used when there is resistance to first line drugs or in case of failure of clinical response to conventional therapy. Tese drugs include: aikacin, cpreomycin, knamycin, Ehionamide, ...
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