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Biochemistry and molecular biology Essay Example

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Biochemistry and molecular biology

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Overall in the biological systems, water has miscellaneous functions that include maintaining body temperature, as well as dispersal in the process of reproduction (Saint, 2004).Carbohydrates are formed as a result of the combinations of carbon and water molecules. In general the carbohydrates may be represented through the formula (CH2O)n. Here C represents the carbon molecules and H2O represents the water molecules, n being the number of atoms of this combination of molecules. However, in some cases carbohydrates might also contain greater numbers of sulphur or nitrogen molecules. If the molecular structure of the carbohydrates is studied, carbons are found to form chains or rings with hydroxyl groups two or more in number along with an aldehyde or a ketone group. There is a carbonyl group at the terminal end of an aldehyde that gets bonded to hydrogen molecule or carbon. A ketone is different from an aldehyde and represents a carbonyl group bonded in between two carbon molecules (Talaro & Park, 2007, p.Different configurations are obtained of the carbohydrates. Monosaccharide refers to one of the forms of carbohydrates that represent a simple polyhydroxy aldehyde or molecule of ketone that contain 3 to 7 molecules of carbon. The structure of a disaccharide varies from a monosaccharide in that a disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides in combination. When five or more monosaccharides combine to form a carbohydrate, then that structure represents a polysaccharide. The monosaccharides and disaccharides are represented by prefix- ose at the end of the name. The name however depends on the number of carbons in the structure. For example, pentose has 5 carbons in it, hexose is composed of 6 carbons, and so on (Talaro & Park, 2007, p.Cellulose is considered as the most significant structural polysaccharide obtained within plants and is also responsible for the strength of the tissues of the plant. This function of the cellulose is associated with its structure since a cellulose molecule is formed of about 10,000 glucose molecules. Around 13-42 percent of the cellulose material can be found in the leaves of a plant. Because of its insoluble nature, cellulose needs to be broken down in order to be transported through the membranes of a cell. The decomposition of the cellulose involves three steps the first of which is

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References

1) Bloem, J., Hopkins, D.W. & A. Benedetti (2006), Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality, Oxfordshire: CABI

2) Enzymes and Clinical Medicine (n.d.), OUP, available at: http://www.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195305753/pdf/Enzymes.pdf

3) Khan, A.A. & M.A. Alzohairy (2010), Recent Advances and Applications of Immobilized Enzyme Technologies: A Review, Research Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol.5, Iss.8, pp.565-575, available at: http://medwelljournals.com/fulltext/?doi=rjbsci.2010.565.575 (accessed on February 27, 2012)

4) Saint, P. (2004), The Importance of Water in Biological Systems, h2g2, available at: http://h2g2.com/dna/h2g2/A2429282 (accessed on February 27, 2012)

5) Stoker, H.S. (2012), General, Organic or Biological Chemistry, Connecticut: Cengage Learning

6) Talaro & K. Park (2007), Foundations in Microbiology’ 2007 Ed. (sixth Edition) 2007 Edition, Philippines: Rex Bookstore, Inc.

7) Toole, A.G., Toole, G. & S.M. Toole (2002), Essential AS Biology, Cheltenham, Nelson Thornes

8) Wilson, K. & J. Walker (2010), Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

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