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Artifacts. Only traverse a straight line via a fixed rate of attenuation; the speed of the sound in all the body tissues measures at 1540 m/s; the beam is very thin, with most of its echoes coming from its central axis; and the impact of the reflector is based on the time which the sound would travel from the transducer to the reflector and back again (Pichamuthu, 2009).There are different types of artifacts. First, the reverberation artifact is seen when the ultrasound is constantly reflected within two different reflective surfaced (George, 2012). Second, is the mirror image artifact. This is a kind of reverberation artifact seen at highly reflective systems like the lungs and descending aorta. The false image is at the opposite side of the reflector due to the mirror-like effect (George, 2012).

Third, is the side-lobe artifact where sidelobe beams are seen at the edges of the transducer element and reflects in a direction different from the main beam (George, 2012). Fourth, the multiple artifacts are seen when the direction of the ultrasound beam is different. Fifth, beamwidth artifacts are seen when echoes of the beam would manifest as though they come from the center (George, 2012). This is seen when the beam goes through fluids. Propagation speed errors are also considered artifacts. These are seen when the media where the beam would penetrate would not propagate at 1540 m/s; as a result, it causes echoes at wrong depths on the displayed image. Acoustic shadowing may be seen when the beam cannot pass through an area “deep to a strongly reflecting or attenuating structure” (George, 2012). Finally, near field clutter can also cause artifacts. This is caused by acoustic noise in the areas of the transducer which then leads to high amplitude oscillations of related elements (George, 2012). These artifacts usually constantly change in appearance and sometimes drift in and out depending on the view. The real structures would often stay constant and can be viewed in different ways. Artifacts.

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