Before the discovery of antibiotics, dseases fatally ravaged mankind. Sreptococcus pyogenes, fr instance, ws responsible for over half of the post-birth deaths and was a major cause of deaths from burns. Saphylococcus aureus on the other hand killed 80% of those with infected wounds with tuberculosis and pneumonia bacteria proving highly fatal (Bryan, 1984). Te discovery of antibiotics was a turning point in the history of mankind and has since gone on to revolutionize medicine in a plethora of ways with countless lives saved hence. Hwever, wth the steady rise of antibiotic resistance, mny forecast a total return to the pre-antibiotic era with researchers listing more than 20,000 potential resistance genes from bacterial genome sequences.
Wth improvements in production of antibiotics with time providing less costly antibiotics, tere have been widespread non-prescription and off-label uses of antibiotics that have resulted in (increased) resistance cases. Te planet has now become saturated with these toxic agents (Hait, 1996). Te first effective antimicrobial, te sulfonamide, hs been rendered largely ineffective by resistance. Slfonamide resistance was first reported in 1930 and problem continues to persist up to date.
Pnicillin was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928. I 1940, mny years before the introduction of penicillin as a therapeutic, abacterial penicillinase was identified by two members of the penicillin discovery team. Oce the antibiotic was used widely, rsistant strains capable of inactivating the drug became prevalent, ad synthetic studies were undertaken to modify penicillin chemically to prevent cleavage by penicillinases (β-lactamases). Tis identification of a bacterial penicillinase before the use of the antibiotic gave a clear pointer that a large of resistance genes are components of natural microbial populations.
A for streptomycin, itroduced in 1944, atibiotic resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were observed to arise during patient treatment. Ad as other antibiotics have emerged in the markets, asimilar pattern as that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been observed (Meszaros, 2010). Te first penicillin resistant Staphylococcus spps was encountered in 1940. 1943 was when penicillin was officially introduced to the human population. I 1950 and 1953,. ..
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