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Answer 7 individual questions Essay Example

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Answer 7 individual questions

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DNA may be integrated in the hosts nucleic acid inducing specialized transduction and phage conversion in the future (Tortora, Funke & Case, 2010). This results to a provirus that allows infected cells to function normally for some time. The cycle involves the production of repressor proteins, which in spontaneous occasions may fail, making the virus to enter the lytic cycle.Viruses act as co-carcinogens, in that they propagate cancer progression. In some cases, they cause cancer, though pathology results after a long time. It is said that 10% of all tumors result from viral infections. A case example is papilomavirus, which normally causes benign warts on human skin with an incubation period of some weeks. HPV (Human papilomavirus) has more than 60 serotypes with serotypes 11 and 6 being common for genital warts, which are benign. However, serotypes 18 and 16 are carcinogenic and cause penile, oral anal and cervical cancers as according to Tortora, Funke and Case (2010). HPV is thus an oncogenic virus. The cancer results following the mixing of host cell DNA and viral DNA instigating changes in cellular growth and cellular multiplication cycles. The results are altered proteins that allow hyperplasia and ultimately cancer. As such, it is advisable to take the HPV vaccine as a measure of avoiding cervical, penile and oral anal cancers in contemporary medicine.Protozoa are unicellular organelles, with a 3-10 micron size; they do not have organs, tissues and layers but have intracellular organelles with various specializations. Most of them are naked with a few having exoskeletons, they have multiple symmetry including spherical, radial, bilateral and even in some cases, asymmetrical (Tortora, Funke & Case, 2010). In addition, they move via cilia, flagella or pseudopodia and can be mutualistic, parasitic, commensal or free living.Protozoa in this category use flagella, pseudopodia or a combination of the two for locomotion. They have monomorphic nuclei. Examples are Arcella and Amoeba genera. The latter are naked and lack a test while the former have a calcareous test.They move using flagella, which can be one or two, have monomorphic nuclei. They have chloroplasts hence photosynthesize just as green plants. They are characterized into two sub-phylum: kinetoplasta and euglenida. The latter are plant like organisms that photosynthesize in solitude while the former are heterotrophic, parasitic and non-photosynthetic.Organisms have two nuclei:

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