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Developmental Psychology in Infant and Preschooler Essay Example

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Developmental Psychology in Infant and Preschooler

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Developmental Psychology in Infant and Preschooler. The physical environment entails the infant’s outdoor play space and the sustainable materials such as trees, edible gardens, mud, and water. Ages between two and six are the preschool years. The development in infancy is faster. However, among the preschoolers it is slower and more stable (Burchinal et al. Physical development among the infants entails the development of genes and minor body parts (McDevitt et al. Among the preschool period, the development includes changes in the brain, fine and gross motor skills, and health. Culture depicts infants as innocent and with no harm to the society.Children start accumulating body fat at age three. The preschoolers’ physical proportions continue to change, with their head being disproportionately large but less than in toddlerhood.

The three-year preschoolers grow to become thirty-three inches tall and weigh about thirty-two pounds by age six they reach about forty-six inches and weight of about forty-six pounds (Lerner, 2015). Brain and nervous system development among the infants is average and relatively dramatic among the preschoolers (Gray & MacBlain, 2012). The left side of the brain develops fully from ages two through six, and the right hemisphere develops fully in ages 7 to 11. Gross motor skills include hopping, jumping, running, skipping, turning, and involve the use of large bodily movements. The fine motor skills include writing, drafting, tying and require the use of small physical movements. The theory of observational learning of Alfred Bandura applies to learning fine and gross motor. Bandura states that after children are biologically able in learning new behaviors they must do the following to develop new skills. Observe behavior in others, practice mental a mental image of the behavior, practice the behavior and be motivated to repeat the behavior.Social development allows infants and children to develop relationships, master the ability to discover, initiate, learn, and play, develop persistence and attention and self-regulate their behavior. Erik Erikson’s psychological theory for 1-3-year-olds depicts that autonomy can be bestowed by encouraging free choice and not forcing a child. The social skills entail a child’s ability to play with others, pay attention to teachers and adults, and make reasonable transitions from one activity to the other (White, Livesy & Hayes, 2012). When a baby is loved and nurtured, he will develop security, trust, and fundamental optimism. Developmental Psychology in Infant and Preschooler.

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References

Benson, J. B., & Haith, M. M. (2009). Social and emotional development in infancy and early childhood. London: Academic.

Burchinal, M., Magnuson, K., Powell, D., & Hong, S. S. (2015). Early Childcare and Education. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science.

Charlesworth, R. (2013). Understanding child development. Cengage Learning.

Diamond, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science, 333(6045), 959-964.

Gray C., MacBlain S., (2012). Learning Theories in Childhood. London. SAGE.

Hollingworth, L. S. (2015). Children above 180 IQ Stanford-Binet: Origin and development. World book company.

Kolb, D. A. (2014). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. FT Press.

Lerner, R. M. (2015). Handbook of child psychology and developmental science: Cognitive processes. Place of publication not identified: John Wiley.

McDevitt T.M., Ormorod J.E., Cupit G., Chandler M. (2012). Child Development and Education. Person Higher Education AU.

Pound, L. (2012). Understanding Child Development. 0-8 years. (3rd ed.). UK: Hodder Education.

Sayre, R. K., Devercelli, A. E., Neuman, M. J., & Wodon, Q. (2015). Investing in early childhood development: Review of the World Bank’s recent experience. World Bank Publications.

Suskind, D., & Hoff, E. (2013). Early language gaps: sources and solutions.

White F., Livesy D., Hayes B., (2012). Developmental Psychology from Infancy to Development. Pearson Higher Education AU.

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