To explain, a positive right may confer upon the government to provide for the services to an individual. If on carrying out these duties, there is an increase of state expenditures and requires tax impositions, this would give birth to negative rights for preventing the government tax the people for money (Bailey, n.d.).
The norms pertaining to slavery, torture, and inhuman-treatment fall under the purview of civil-political human rights. These are prohibited by several Acts of Parliament and ratified by several Acts of Parliament. The State sometimes fails in its duties to give proper protection to vulnerable people against ill-treatment of all forms. For example, Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights states that “No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment” (European Convention on Human Rights, 2012). In this case, the threshold of severity is the determining factor and a victim’s inability to be affected by the particular treatment is taken into account. There are different types of ill-treatment, such as Torture, Inhuman treatment or punishment, degrading treatment or punishment. This Article 3 places some negative obligations on the state which prevents from subjecting anyone within its jurisdiction to any form of mistreatment, punishment or any torture. The Historical Advent of Human Rights.
Donnelly, J., 2002. Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. 2nd edn. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Falk, R., 2000. Human Rights Horizons: the Pursuit of Justice in a Globalizing World. New York: Routledge.
United Nations, no date. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. [online] Available at: <http://www.un.org/rights/HRToday/declar.htm> [Accessed 20 January 2015].
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