The increase in world population has raised the demand for food. Sbsequent rise in agricultural practices are using large quantities of freshwater for growing crops and maintaining plants and trees n. Aother reason which has posed serious constraints on water supply is the changes observed by scientists in the precipitation rates. Tis is likely to have a major negative impact on the amount of rainfall and snow in several regions across the world (National Resources Defense Council, 2010; Ntural Resources Defense Council, n These shifts in climatic changes an adverse effect on the availability of renewable water supply and this in turn would affect water withdrawal for various purposes (National Resources Defense Council, 2010).
Aother major factor affecting water quality is pollution. Surces of clean drinking water include surface water such as rivers and water reservoirs and ground water. Al water bodies contain natural contaminants such as chemicals and microbes. O the two sources groundwater is less permeable to contaminants than surface water (Fawell & Nieuwenhuijsen 2003). Wth regard to surface water as rain and melting snow along roofs or houses and roads draining into the river it collects toxic chemicals, drt and various disease causing organisms along.
Wen these drain into rivers and other water bodies’ organisms and other pollutants build up and eventually enter the food chain. Mcrobial contaminants of water are associated with serious health issues such as cholera, tphoid, dsentery and diarrhea. I addition toxic chemical pollutants from industries and factories also drain into the water streams thus increasing its levels of pollutants (Natural Resources Defense Council, nd; Fwell & Nieuwenhuijsen I countries open defecation and urination serve as significant contributors to contamination.
Al these increase the level of pollutants in water in addition to altering its taste and odor. Wter from these sources used for drinking purposes has to be treated further in order to remove disease causing organisms and other toxic chemicals. Te treatment process should also be optimized in order to prevent further contamination of water by chemicals and other residues in the water treatment method. Oher growing risks that are contributing to reduced supply of. ..
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