It simply uses the simple RC low-pass filtering component designed from a resistor and a capacitor as shown in figure 9 below. The RC low-pass filter does the conversion of the PWM signal to the required voltage for the duty cycle. According to Ray & Bhurchand (2003), the optimal PWM values for this project include R (3.9KΩ and C = 0.With the understanding of the role of PWM in changing the frequency, this project implements a frequency modulation using an RC low-pass filter. It is a simple circuit that convert the PWM digital output into analogue output signal, which is proportional to the sizes of the PWM waveforms. This will provide a full D-A converter for the Energia Launch pad microcontroller (Krishna, 2007).For the conversion of the digital input signal to analogue signals, there is a variation of the frequency and amplitude of the signal. According to Parab et al (2007), when data communication through pulses is introduced, the modulation can be done on the frequency, the amplitude or the pulse width. Figure 9 below shows the modulated digital signals.Through an online oscillator, we produce the transient analysis graph showing the ripples. It also shows the behavior of voltage against the PWM values between 40 and 200. Table 3 below presents the data output for the voltage against the input. Logic and Programming: Ripple Generator.
Osborne, A. (1980). An Introduction to Microcomputers. Volume 1: Basic Concepts (2nd ed.). Berkely, California: Osborne-McGraw Hill.
Parab, J. S., Shelake, Vinod, G., Kamat, R. K., Naik, G. M. (2007). Exploring C for Microcontrollers: A Hands on Approach). Springer. p. 4.
Krishna, K. (2007), Microprocessors And Microcontrollers: Architecture Programming And System Design, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., 2007,p. 61.
Ray, A. K. & Bhurchand, K.M. (2003). Advanced Microprocessors and Peripherals. India: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Heath, S. (2003). Embedded systems design. EDN series for design engineers (2 ed.). Newnes. pp. 11–12.
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