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Youth and Labor

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The definition of poverty according to (Sen, 1983) is to not be able to afford food. Sen has adopted a very rational approach toward defining poverty and has tried to differentiate between spiritual and materialistic poverty. Through conducting an in-depth analysis of Sen’ s argument, one gains the idea that poverty is indeed, a state of mind, and the same state of mind convinces an individual to isolate himself/herself from the rest of the society to escape embarrassment that he/she feels because of his / her inferiority complex. However, in the same report, (Messina, 2009) refers to the relationship between poverty and exclusion from another perspective that throws light upon the consequences of illiteracy.

(Messina, 2009) notes that poverty gradually leads to exclusion, when one’ s journey of education is hindered by the lack of finances. In such circumstances, one can not afford education and accordingly can not compete in the market among the educated lot to secure a good job. Thus one undergoes an exclusion from the “ job market” . (Pierson, 2002, p. 2) identifies a unique way in which the government takes social exclusion as a substitution for poverty in an attempt to spread a message that not much can be done about it, since according to (Pierson, 2002) social exclusion in a way, “ downplays the reality of poverty” .

(Carlen, 1996 cited in Shaw, 1997) refers to the reasons of youth homelessness as social exclusion accompanied by an inappropriate judicial system that differentiates between the rich and the poor in deciding the punishments. It is evident from Carlen’ s argument that he does not hold poverty solely responsible for the ultimate social exclusion. His argument revolves around the psychological disorders caused by the unfair application of law and judiciary employed in various countries in the world, which is just unacceptable to the youth of the present age, who believes in uniformity in the individuals’ rights irrespective of class or status differences.

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