Using Freud’ s theory, my characteristic judgmental behavior is as a result of the interaction between the id, ego, and superego in the conscious, subconscious and preconscious mind. Due to the id’ s ideals of aggression and pleasure-seeking, I tend to find pleasure in convicting others while still using the ego to identify the rules of morality. More importantly, the superego enables me to properly limit my actions in order not to pass the limits of natural or moral laws. In Freud’ s theory, my behavior is as a result of the interaction of my Ego, Id, and Superego in my conscious, subconscious and preconscious mind. Alfred Alder is another philosopher who came up with another theory to explain human behavior.
In his theory he argued that human beings were naturally social beings, the individual is indivisible and functions with the unity of personality and that behavior was behavior is goal-oriented. Generally, his theory was based on the principles of purposiveness, social interest, and holism. In his theory, Adler stressed the unity or indivisibility of the person, and thus he named it Individual Psychology (Bruce, 2007).
Alder argued that human beings assimilate behavior which is goal-oriented. He argued that people engage in psychological movement. In this movement, the whole of the personality is expressed; the individual’ s mind, body, emotions, perceptions, and all functions move toward this chosen goal (Bruce, 2007). Alder also argued that people are faced with the same problems which he termed as iron-clad logic of social living. He also explained that humans do not term behavior as moral or not according to individual logic but using common sense. The common sense which is used to regulate behavior was unanimously accepted by the society.
As described by Bruce (2007, p 8), ‘ It places the whole of our existence upon a dynamic foundation of movement and improvement, belonging and cooperation’ . Also, Bruce (2007, p 9) says that ‘ Social interest represents an ideal norm and, therefore, can be used as a standard to which the functioning of the individual can be compared. Alder also argued that the human response mechanism was fuelled by emotions’ .
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