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Different Types of Neurological Diseases

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A multiple memory systems framework, however, does not imply interactions are limited to those between clearly defined components.   For example, the hippocampus and MTL are often considered together as a system supporting declarative memory, but interactions between structures within this system are extremely complex and include cooperative and competitive relationships.   In the cortex, bottom-up, top-down and lateral interactions occur at every processing stage, providing the foundation for information processing in this memory system.   A multiple memory systems framework, however, does not imply interactions are limited to those between clearly defined components.   For example, the hippocampus and MTL are often considered together as a system supporting declarative memory, but interactions between structures within this system are extremely complex and include cooperative and competitive relationships.

In the cortex, bottom-up, top-down and lateral interactions occur at every processing stage, providing the foundation for information processing in this memory system.   1. Memory ClassificationSome perceptions about memory such as the concepts of “ short-term memory” and “ long-term memory” are now being replaced with more elaborate and systematic classifications systems as the result of neuropsychological studies of patients with focal brain lesions, neuro-anatomical studies in animals and humans.

Though memory can be classified according to duration, information type and the temporal direction, major classification in this study is presented in accordance with the clinical relevance. This classification includes episodic memory, semantic memory, procedural memory, and working memory (see table 1). However, an overview of the basic classification of “ Sensory memory” , “ short-term memory” and “ Long-term memory” is also presented for elaborating the subject.   1.1 Sensory MemorySensory memory lasts around 200-500 milliseconds and it is the most basic type of memory which lets us remember what we saw over the matter of seconds.

This is photographic like memory which fades instantly and the viewer is able only to describe what was displayed before them but hardly would be able to describe what actually they saw in detail. This type of memory cannot be improved or prolonged through the means of rehearsal as compared to short-term memory. The figure 1 below illustrates that the sensory memory comes first to view objects from the environment input and then the information either has to decay instantly or goes further to the STM or LTM.    

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