As argued by Touraine (1982), the primary duty of sociology is the analysis of the social action by which interactions and relationships are developed and changed. The objective of Touraine is to explain the mechanisms of social development and to classify the developing social movement able to surpass the inconsistencies of current social organizations and shepherding a new age where in women and men may fashion their own history (Polletta & Jasper, 2001, 283). However, other scholars have argued that the theorists of new social movement declare that attempts to characterize, observe, perform, and reinterpret identity are more essential in new movements than in old ones, but have looked for distinct clarifications for that fact (Pichardo, 1997, 411).
For instance, Jasper (1997) emphasizes legal involvement as a primary feature. Not like past labor and civil rights movements, which aimed for total involvement as citizens, new citizenship campaigns are conducted by people who already benefit from nearly all the customary citizens’ rights, such as the capacity to organize legally and make demands to policymakers (Plotke, 1990, 87).
Members of these movements do not normally have an identity enforced on them by the legal and political structures; as a result, they have more liberty to take part in ingenious re-creations of their own identity (p. 87). The resolve of theorists of new social movement to historicize a current range of demonstrations has also persuaded attempts to explain the creation of questionable identities. A number of scholars have referred to major developments like industrialization, nation building, and urbanization, as well as to the emergence of novel intellectual frameworks, to clarify how membership to a social movement becomes the source of prejudice or exclusion but also for mobilization (Pichardo, 1997, 412).
D’Emilio (1983), for instance, attributes the appearance of a ‘gay/lesbian’ identity to the industrialization and urbanization developments that facilitated an independent personal life. Homosexuals have been existent all the time and, certainly, have frequently been intensely reprimanded or rebuked, as stressed by D’Emilio (1983), but it was just at the advent of the 20th century that it became not only illegitimate, immoral, deviant behavior but an abnormal identity.
In a related process, the legal establishment of racial rights in South Africa and the United States produced large-scale and intense inequality and ultimately presented the groundwork for demands by racial minorities for legal rights (Tilly, 1998, 11).
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