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What Were the Causes of the Collapse of the Soviet Union

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It is quite essential to state that the dissolution of the Soviet Union was accompanied with considerable bloodshed, on account of the civil wars in Abkhazia, Adjaria, Chechnya, Ingushetia, Karabakh, Moldova, Ossetia and Tajikistan. A large number of people lost their lives, and the refugees were in the millions. In the aftermath, there were fifteen states, and even Ukraine, which had managed to prevent civil war, had to countenance a self-declared republic, in its far western region (Kotkin, 2008, p. 4). By the 1990s, the conflicts that were in support of, as well as the battles that opposed these reforms; took place in an environment that was witness to the collapse of institutions as well as their recombination (Kotkin, 2008, p.

6). It was opined by the current president of Russia, Putin that the anarchy, which ensued, in the aftermath of the collapse of communism in Russia, was on account of democracy. Russia dragged into the doldrums when it defaulted on its domestic debt. This transpired during the rule of Boris Yeltsin, in 1998. The trials and tribulations of Russia did not end with this ignominy, and the hapless Russians had to witness the collapse of the Rouble and the abandoning of state welfare (Hilsum, 2007, p.

26). The abject poverty of the Russians and their affliction with several ailments, made them disregard the democracy that had been praised by the US and introduced by an enthusiastic Yeltsin. Liberal capitalism was one of the factors that led to the US victory in the Cold War. Communism, per se, had failed to bestow an adequate standard of living upon those whom it had suppressed and exploited.

Another factor was the difference in ideologies, between the Soviet Union and China. The emergence of an ideology, in Russia and China that combines autocracy with capitalism, has proved to be very strong (Hilsum, 2007, p. 26). This novel system constitutes a real challenge to the democracies of the world. There are several reasons that led to the socioeconomic reforms in the former Soviet Union. The most important of these was the fear of being defeated by foreign forces that were culturally alien. This apprehension motivated the Republic to depend on military power.

The Soviet Union justified its adoption of a non – liberal model of modernisation, on these grounds. Moreover, the rulers and elites were in favour of instituting and maintaining an empire that was based on military power.  

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