There are many complications associated with Type 2 diabetes. Risk factors actually progress fairly clearly in this disease and it can be expected that patient A will progress somewhere along these lines unless he begins to take care of his diagnosis better than he has. A discussion of some of the complications is important in this case. Muscular mitochondrial dysfunction is one of those complications. This is a dysfunction in which there is an accumulation of fat in the skeletal muscle. In fact, there is much study going on about this dysfunction at this point because it is not clear whether this begins early in the disease or not.
Schrauwen-Hinderling, Roden, and Kooi have just finished a study on this issue and it is still unclear (2009). Patients with diabetes are 5 times as likely to develop heart failure than those without. In the case of diabetics, it often begins with the development of cardiomyopathy. 30% of patients with impaired diastolic function are asymptomatic for quite some time. It is still unclear as to why patients with diabetes develop this problem. Studies show at this time that it is probably not related to HbA1c levels and it is expected that it has something to do with exercise levels (Baldi, Aoina, Whalley, et. al., 2006).
The study performed by Baldi et. al. (2006) shows that patients with type 2 diabetes are even more likely to develop heart failure than people their same age and completely sedentary that do not have type 2 diabetes. Vascular disease is an occurrence that comes about often in type 2 diabetics. The inner surface of blood vessels is lined by a single layer of endothelial cells that provide a metabolically active interface between blood and tissue.
(Chorzempa, 2006, pg. 486). There are many things including nitric oxide that work together to keep the vessels functioning. However, diabetes causes metabolic malfunction and which induces vascular dysfunction and predisposes these patients to atherosclerosis.
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