Process theory is based on the idea that in order to create a certain outcome, a repetition of the ways in which that outcome is achieved must be created. The most useful theory within process theory is that of expectancy theory which suggests that when choices are presented in courses of action two values will be used in order to determine the direction of the course. The first value is that of the value of achieving the outcome. The second is the probability of achieving that outcome (Perry, 2007, pp.
110). The contemplation of action will take into consideration a more complex web of action and outcome scenarios that will include individuated needs and the effect that the outcome will have on those needs. ManipulationHerzberg defined business motivations by two terms, one being ‘ satisfiers’ and the other being ‘ dissatisfies’ . Dissatisfying factors such as salary or supervision methodologies can create dissatisfaction and decrease motivation. However, responsibility and opportunities for advancement are considered satisfiers which can lead to better job performance (Chewning, Eby & Roels, 1990, pp. 166). Consider the difference between these two aspects of satisfaction.
Salary and supervision can be seen as diminishing factors that affect the dignity and personal respect of an individual. However, the use of responsibility and opportunity appeals to the need for self-actualization. Any employee who is working their way through the hierarchy of needs to achieve greater personal satisfaction will immediately respond when responsibility and opportunity will allow them to advance up the ladder of human needs. Hiam (1999) provides a solid example of how an employer may try to manipulate motivation rather than inspire it in his or her employees.
He cites the example of a manager who sets up a program of rewards and recognition for job performance, but general unrest about the system is soon felt within the employees. This method of motivation is not uncommon within organizations, but the issue of the system is not in the rewards and the recognition, but rather in the way in which the tasks and goals were presented (pp. 255). The problem with the system, or game, was that the tasks were not clear and the rules appeared to shift according to the needs of the company.
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