Since Kao and Thomson acknowledge persistent substantial gaps among the Hispanics, African Americans, Native Americans and other more advantaged groups such as Asian and White Americans despite the gains that have been realized in narrowing the racial gap in education, it behooves their discussion to expound on the manner in which such gaps can be sealed. George Farkas’ The Black-White Test Score Gap discusses the backdrop of the ruling of the Supreme Court in 2003 to uphold affirmative action in college admission. However, the Supreme Court ruling remains a sacrosanct part of Farkas’ study since the Supreme Court went ahead to set out an expiry date for the policy that is affirmative action.
The ruling postulated that affirmative action should be faced out after 25 years since Sandra Day O’ Connor and the rest of the bench surmised that 25 years from the ruling, racial segregation and the use of racial preferences will have been faced out. Based on this development, Farkas takes to establish academic performance among the different races in the US and to explain the phenomenon behind the interracial disparity in intellectual and academic performance.
Discussions on the Works by Farkas, Hout and Kao and Thompson on Race, Ethnic and Class Relations and Effectiveness of the American Educational System. Farkas works show very well that general performance in academics and even in school entrance exams is heavily punctuated with elements of race and class. Farkas points out that since 1990, the black-white exam score gap has never been sealed, despite the scores being the very yardstick that is used to determine college entrance. According to Farkas, as is shown by the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP), the average score for an African American 12th grader matches that of the white eighth grader.
70% of fourth graders scored below basic in a Washington DC school district.
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