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The Importance of Epidural Analgesia in the Management of Pain in Postoperative Patients

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Perception is the process through which harmful stimuli get to consciousness in the human brain (Bressler, 2010). Perception takes two shapes in the human brain; attention and cognition. With regard to attention, Mr Johnston can reduce the level of his pain by concentrating on a separate image other than his condition (Motoc & Vasca, 2010). The cognitive aspect of pain, on the other hand, would be anchored on Mr Johnston’ s ability to relate his pain to another event. As an illustration, a setting of depression is likely to make Mr Johnston’ s pain more severe compared to when he can be in a pleasant environment (Mathsen & Smith, 2007).

The postoperative pain of Mr Johnstone has made him suffer from a number of adverse effects ranging from urinary, cardiovascular, and pulmonary dysfunction. The body of Mr Johnson’ s response to pain is the root of all these harmful effects. Ideally, the pain and stress associated with surgery trigger regular and distinct metabolic response that includes the release of cytokines and neuroendocrine hormones that culminates in these toxic effects (Almeida et al, 2011). Stress, in particular, has far-reaching consequences on surgical patients; it raises the level of active catabolic hormones, glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenocorticotropin.

On the other hand, stress reduces the level of anabolic hormones like insulin (Gherghina et al, 2008). As evidenced by the indwelling catheter, Mr Johnston’ s preoperative pain has made him suffer urinary dysfunction. Surgery patients have a tendency to suffer from urinary dysfunction due to a rise in sympathetic activity. The urinary bladder, among other visceral muscles, reacts by hanging up or tends to shy away due to an increase in activity.

Such inhibition by these muscles causes retention of urine and subsequently, the urinary tract is infected. Clearly, these complications have resulted in Mr Johnston being subjected to an indwelling catheter (Mathsen & Smith, 2007). Johnston’ s heart rate is indicated as HR 62 regular. Although it is regular, it is clearly below that of a normal person, which is HR 72 regular.

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