Moreover, the potential of members of the organisation are exploited more fully. An extreme form of leadership is known as charismatic leadership where personality traits are very important and influence over others is very strong. The charismatic leader becomes a true role model for others in the organisation and the followers have high expectations. Other forms of leadership include distributed leadership, in which there is greater delegation, collaborative leadership, in which several members work together committed towards a common good, and moral leadership, which has a strong moral dimension. Another form of leadership, called servant-leadership focuses on caring relationships with others, in which others are involved in the decision making, and which seeks to enhance their personal growth. There are also instructional and learning-oriented forms of leadership that are more closely associated with and could therefore be more relevant for education.
The former focuses on developmental aspects, and according to Bush (2003), instructional leadership focuses on direction more so than processes, and on the purpose of education. There is therefore a greater emphasis on both teaching and learning given that these are main objectives of educational institutions. Educational organisations with formal management or managerial leadership tend to have hierarchical and bureaucratic structures and bounded systems.
In subjective management or post-modern leadership, it is assumed that organisations are creations of the people working in them, in which situations are interpreted differently according to their individual backgrounds (Bush, 2003). Ambiguity management or situational leadership places emphasis on change within an environment of uncertainty. The unclear goals and processes result in changeable decisions. Ordinarily, management and leadership could be considered as synonymous. However, it would perhaps be more appropriate to describe leadership in general as a form of strategic management.
The main differences between ordinary management, and more strategic management descriptive of leadership, are based on two key aspects: scope and timeframe. Under strategic management, the scope of activities is typically much wider and the time frame of planning is much longer. “Managers seek to integrate tasks so that they are consistent with the values of the school and are mutually compatible” (Bush & Coleman, 2000: 3). This requires a holistic approach in which the manager considers all activities taking place within the organisation and conducts careful and detailed planning that also extends over a long period.
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