Jaspers underlines the determination to be free, which complements quite well the current assumptions on ‘ individualisation’ , but it is a remarkable envision as well about evangelism and ‘ fundamentalism’ . Joseph Kitagawa stresses 3 connected typical attributes: the individual as the center, ‘ this-worldly soteriology’ , and ‘ the search for freedom’ . He particularly argues that all ancient religions had a tendency to adopt negative outlooks toward extraordinary presence and believed in another dimension of reality which was fundamental, and that, individuals were educated to be prisoners or voyagers, looking for nirvana which would save them from finitude, sin, and suffering.
According to Hamilton (2001), a far-reaching transformation has occurred in relation to this in the belief of modern humanity, in that they now refrain from believing the presence of another dimension of reality. Undeniably, they still make use of terms like Nirvana, heaven, paradise, and the Kingdom of God. These expressions, according to Asad (2003), have mere symbolic significance for modern thinking. Religions today are forced to find the essence of human fate in this world in order to satisfy the human craft which implies soteriologies concentrated on this dimension of reality.
As Bellah (1976) argues, “ the central feature of the change is the collapse of the dualism that was so crucial to all the historic religions. .. There is simply no room for a hierarchic dualistic religious symbol system of the classical historic type. This is not to be interpreted as a return to primitive monism: it is not that a single world has replaced a double one but then an infinitely multiplex one has replaced the simple duplex structure. ..” (ibid: pp. 39-44) The dualistic perspective, according to Aldridge (2007), definitely persevere in the belief of numerous of the pious, but just as certainly numerous others have created complex and usually pseudo-scientific explanations to carry their faith in its knowledgeable reliability into some form of intellectual agreement with the modern world.
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