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Temperature control in food( milk ) delivered to hospitals in Saudi Arabia

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The objectives through which the aim will be studied will be: The transportation of milk is a specific problem in Saudi Arabia because of the harsh climate. Milk production as a large scale industry has only been in existence since the 1970s (Al-Otaibi & Robinson, 2002). The effectiveness and the efficiency at which temperatures of the food transporting facilities are regulated are key factors that play a major role in preventing food expiry or poisoning of the delivered food (Redmond and Griffith, 2003). Regulation of the temperatures of food being transported is not always a major challenge especially in countries with temperate climates, but it remains to be a difficult task in places like Saudi Arabia where temperatures are extremely high (Berger and Parenteau, 2010). Yousef et al (2013) write that food contamination is a problem at Saudi Arabian hospitals and that safety practices need to be examined in order to develop systems through which this problem can be addressed.

There still exists a research gap in this field and in particular with regard to controlling milk temperatures in areas experiencing extreme temperatures like Saudi Arabia. One of the problems that Weart (2013) notes is that often contamination is a matter response rather than prevention.

In a study conducted on the contamination of milk products in the United States, 47% were found to be preventable at the transportation level. The majority of contamination was found to be a problem that occurred during transport. Kennedy et al (2005) conducted a study in which the interiors of domestic refrigerators were studied in order to understand how contamination may be present. The study concluded that hygiene knowledge and practice were influential in the types of bacteria that were present in the 100 refrigerators that were sampled.

Temperature and knowledge varied widely in the participants and were found to be correlated to the effects of contamination. Studies in the problem of milk storage have revealed that a great percentage of bacteria that are harmful to human beings are not active if foods are stored in temperatures above 63C or stored in cold temperatures below 8C for a given period. Food contamination due to bacterial multiplication can be reduced significantly by cooling hot foods while on the other hand heating cool foods within the 8C and the

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