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Stent fracture: A fracture mechanics approach

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Occurrence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) to neointimal hyperplasia has been attributed to an alternate cause of in-vivo coronary stent fracture. Stent fracture primarily reflects upon an impulsive damage to the structure of stent support exclusive of any simulated process [13] [14]. The most important cause of stent fracture has been associated with excessive mechanical stress on the structure owing to angulations [15]. Figure 2: Stent Fracture [16]. The figure above presents a case where the stent structure has undergone a fracture. It represents a mechanical fault of the structure thereby affecting the durability of the structure [17].

This particular research is based on an understanding of the corrosion and fatigue of stents, focusing on stents analysis and the mechanics of fatigue and fracture in stents structures, based on an extensive literature review of the researches that have been previously conducted on this particular issue and hence overviews the understanding, opinions and views of those researches, to provide for an understanding and analysis for stent fractures. 2 Literature Review 2.1 Stents Fracture and Its Incidence: Although stent fracture is not a very common incidence that occurs, yet there are several reports of the incidence of fracture in the stent structure [18].

Hence not recognizing the level of importance of addressing the issue of fracture in stents cannot be supported, as researchers believe it to be. The use of drug-eluting stents has been made to replace the bare metal stents targeting towards reduction of the rates of restenosis also reducing the requirement of revascularization [19]. According to researchers, there is growing alarm about stent fracture as a prospective reason of stent restenosis and thrombosis, “which can lead to adverse clinical outcomes such as recurrent angina, myocardial infarction (MI), and even sudden death” [20].

The rates of incidence of fractures in stents have been obtained to be different as reported by different researches. This implies that accurate research has not been made on the incidence of stent fracture after its implantation in the human body [21]. The difference rates as could be obtained from different studies can be observed from the following chart. Table 1: Different rates of incidence of stent fractures obtained from different researches [22].

Studies reflect that the incidences of fractures in stents are under recognized [23]. They occur post implantation of the stents owing to severe complications of percutaneous coronary interventions.

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