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Sociological Understanding Of Criminology

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For the majority of criminologists, and we cannot disagree with them, borders of the criminal and not criminal, deviant and "normal" are conditional and flexible (relativism of a crime), and are the outcome of the "arrangement" fixed by the legislator in norms of criminal law (conventionality of a crime). In other words, crime is a social construction. An attempt evidently to present the process of construction of "deviancy" and "criminality" as a result of the social agreement/disagreement taking into account caused harm has been undertaken by Hagan and has received the name "Hagan's Pyramid of Crime", developed later into a "prism of crime" (Lanier & Henry, 2004, p.

21-29). Now let us consider the concept of race. According to Anna Stubblefield (2005, p. 71) “ toward the end of the twentieth century, scholars began to speak of race as a "social construction": a way of classifying people that is entirely artificial, reinforced by law and social practice, that some people created to serve their social/political purposes, but that has no basis in biology. People who believe that race is a social construction point to the fact that in different societies, in different times and different places, the race is defined differently.

A person who counts as white in one society might not count as white in another. In many times and places, people have not thought of each other in terms of the race at all. According to this view, the race is a made-up classification, not a natural one” .Some sociologists state that the notion of race has always been filled with some socio-cultural meaning, demonstrating an attitude towards ‘ aliens’ expressed through the emphasizing of their most observable physical differences.

In other words, sociologists consider that physical marks reflect not the objective reality, but subjective attitude. According to Robert Park (1974, pp. 237-239, 315), a racial mark has become the symbol of the suspense, in the ground of which has laid the sense of self-vulnerability.

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