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Life-Span Perspective, Principle of Life Stage, and Principle of Contextualism

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Chapanis and Chapanis (1964) criticized that, experiments along with the theory, presented some methodological ambiguities.   The statements of Chapanis and Chapanis, as well as Rosenberg, resulted in more experiments which were carefully designed, elicited more consistent evidence with dissonance theory. Cognitive dissonance theory could have facilitated the generation of a program that might have changed attitudes.   Induced compliance results in attitude change as an opposite function of justification. It was able to prove that money is not the only reason or justification that facilitates cognition consonant with behavior.

Many other forms may serve the same purpose. Several people love what they suffer for sufficiently summarizes this dissonance effect. Mostly, people do not like to spend undue effort; or suffer. However, there are instances that one finds himself or herself in a situation in which they are volunteering for a specific cause. This situation or gestures have been observed in most social workers. To provide more enlightenment on the previous statements, nature and job functions of social workers can be recalled. Although increased burnout, more work with fewer resources, slow pace of change and bureaucracy may be experienced along with their line of duties, they still continue to carry out their roles since they feel that the advantages of social services have far outnumbered the disadvantages of which.

They believe in more important goal and may have considered it as the most important. In this connection, self-perception and impression management are two other theories that have been offered to compete with dissonance, as elaborations for the experimental phenomena. These theories are quite different from dissonance since they do not put something as any psychological arousal existing due to inconsistency.

Moreover, Bem’ s self-perception theory (1972) argues that people come to find out about themselves by observing their respective behavior, in the same manner, that people learn on the preferences as well as the personality of others, aside from introspection.  

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