Lanier argued that women role is still overrepresented in many professions and underrepresented in others. His arguments were based on the statistics that in 1900, only 4.4% women were managers, in 2000, 46% women were managers and in 2002, 34% of working women were managers and 50% of women were working in the sales and administrative support. The idea Lanier presented was that women are not getting the chance to enter into the sectors where they could attain significant managerial and leadership positions. The researchers, who have found that women leaders appear to be more participative, usually argue that increasing number of women’ s role as leaders in the workplaces is because of the leadership traits of women.
On the other hand, Ely & Rhode argue that the perceived assertive and dominant behavior of leaders makes the women atypical and unattractive for leadership roles. Significant work has been also done to determine the factors which are contributing to discourage the women’ s role as leaders in the workplaces. In 1985, Nelson and Quick stated that career-oriented women in organizations face various problems such as gender discrimination, stereotyping, social isolation and marriage work interface (Bhatnagar, 1988).
Ceta Ramkhalwasnsingh from Canada argued that the policy framework and legislation in Canada support the increasing number of women leaders in various sectors, however, there is not practical equality between men and women (UNHCR, 2007). Eupen (2009) found that women have achieved significant gains in the workplaces, which shows that the glass ceiling is no longer there, however, the number of female leaders is still low for example, in the 50 large publicly traded corporations of EU, women account for only 11% of top executive positions and 4% of CEO, President and Board of Directors. To enhance the women’ s role as leaders in the workplaces, equal opportunities should be provided to both men and women.
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