Innovation diffusion is defined as “ the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system” (Rogers, 1995, p. 5). Innovation diffusion can be evaluated at multiple levels of analysis: organizational, external environment and individual (Rogers, 1983). IDT frames innovation diffusion as a process driven by uncertainty reduction (Rogers, 1983). That is, an innovation introduces potential adopters to new ways of solving problems. A degree of uncertainty is introduced because the potential adopter does not know if the new method will be superior or inferior to the existing method(s).
Adopters are classified in one of five ways: innovator, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards. There are five stages through which technological innovation passes. Knowledge is exposure to the existence of the technology and understanding its function. Persuasion is forming a favorable attitude. The decision is making a commitment to adopt the technology. Implementation is putting the technology to use. Confirmation is reinforcement based on positive outcomes. Rogers’ model (1995) also identifies five attributes an individual uses to evaluate an innovation prior to deciding to adopt or reject the innovation.
Relative advantage is “ the degree to which an innovation is perceived as being better than the idea it supersedes (p. 212). ” Compatibility is “ the degree to which an innovation is perceived as consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential (p. 224). ” Complexity it “ the degree to which an innovation is perceived as relatively difficult to understand and use (p. 242). ” Trialability is “ the degree to which an innovation may be experimented with on a limited basis (p.
243). ” Observability is “ the degree to which the results of an innovation are visible to others (p. 244). ” According to TRA, a person’ s performance of a specified behavior is determined by his or her behavioral intention (BI). Behavioral intention is determined by the person’ s attitude (A) and subjective norm (SN) regarding the behavior (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975).
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