Desalination employs nanotechnology to help come up with a sustainable method that aims at curbing water shortage in Egypt. Since time immemorial the Nile River has been the key source of fresh water for use in the country capable of supplying about 95% of the total volume of water used. According to studies done by the UN on Egypt water demand, it has been found that the country experiences a water shortfall by approximately 7 billion M3 and this is accompanied by ever-increasing domestic water consumption which is expected to go up by 25% come the year 2025.
According to a study conducted by UNEP, Egypt’ s water demand is approximated to be 80 billion M3 per year. This demand overrides the Nile treaty of 1959 which provided Egypt as a country with a quota of 55 billion M3 annually. This means that Egypt is restricted to its water use from the Nile despite its increasing water demand resulting from its rapid population growth and development. These challenges have prompted Egypt to look for other water provision methods which include desalination; this involves the extraction of salt from seawater and brackish water to get fresh water best suited for irrigation and human consumption. Despite desalination being used decades in other countries, it has a major drawback which is the fact that it requires a lot of energy and has high installation costs.
The installation requires expensive infrastructure that is also specific to it. As for the case of thermal desalination, the large amount is needed which in turn result in an escalation in carbon dioxide emissions thus air pollution. Currently, it has been of concern to come up with desalination methods that are cost less to develop and be environmentally friendly at the same time.
With current, the turf economic times across the world mean setting aside a large amount of money for such projects and cutting down on other important areas thus having a negative social impact on the citizens.
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