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Realism, liberalism and critical theory

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8). Thus, after the years of uncertainty Napoleon finally took the power in his hands and caused significant changes in the European political map. In general, French Revolution was a turning point in the whole European history. On the one hand, it was the first mass revolution in the history. Therefore, the fact of its victory challenged the royal, elite, afnd religious authority in all the European countries. On another hand, the international consequences of the change of social and political structure in France were tangible for all the countries of continental Europe with the enormous ambitions of Napoleon.

And so, the theoretic analysis of this event is different in the key international relations theories due to the complex outcomes of its occurring. In realist theory, the international relations are considered as a battlefield of selfish forces that struggle solely for their own interests (Walt, 1998, p. 31). In fact, realist scholars view the international system as a “structural anarchy”, or “the absence of central authority to settle disputes” (Holsti, 2004, p. 54). In this context, the inability of French king to resolve the hard conditions of his country caused the conflict as it is predicted by realism.

In addition, French Revolution as a bloody event in French history fits such a pessimistic view of realist framework on the cooperation between radical groups within the society. Moreover, realism emphasizes on the competition in international relations that easily explain all the conflicts and alliances that happened in the previous centuries (Walt, 1998, p. 31). In fact, this theory has no optimism considering the peaceful resolution of the conflicts (Walt, 1998, p. 31).

In particular, the weakness of French position in European context demonstrated by the war against it illustrates such an idea of pragmatism in international relations. In addition, alliances were included in the general explanation of realist approach of the necessity to survive in the given environment (Walt, 1998, p. 31) as choosing the least evil among all the other ones. In this context, leaders of French Revolution fit the view of Hans Morgenthau and Reinhold Niebuhr that found in all human structures the natural wish of dominance (Walt, 1998, p.

31). Furthermore, the background conditions of weakness of royal power and mass dissatisfaction provides the reason why the struggle between rising leaders and groups existed as they were in the same position in power vacuum.

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