18). Psychosocial development The turning point in the history of psychoanalytic thought was given by Jung who proposed the idea that personality development is an ongoing process and occurs in adulthood too (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2006,p. 352). Jung’s idea proved to be a break from Freudian thought which believed that after adolescence stage, the personality development stops (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2006,p. 353). However, the best-known life-span theory was Erik Erikson’s (1982), who stressed the importance of the role of social elements in the development of personality and developed a psychosocial theory showing the sequential and orderly manner in which people grow during their life-span (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2006,p.
353). Erikson proposed that there are eight stages in a life cycle of human being and according to him, every stage brings a struggle between the inner psychological influence and the outer social influences (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2006,p. 353). Personality is determined by how a person resolves and interacts with these two forces (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2006,p. 353). Erikson believed that as later stages and the future behavior of a person has its roots in the past, the initial stages of development should be positive in order to assure a positive and healthy development of that person(Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2006,p.
353). Hence, as the first stage in theory is trust versus mistrust, he believes that an infant who develops a feeling of trust in the world feels very secure and comfortable (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2006,p. 353). The remaining stages describe the conflict between different emotions and they are as follows: 2. autonomy vs. shame, 3. initiative vs. guilt, 4. peer acceptance vs. inferiority, 5. identity vs. identity confusion, 6.
intimacy vs. isolation, 7. generativity vs. stagnation, and 8. integrity vs. despair (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2006,p. 353). According to Erikson, people who resolve these conflicts in different stages gain the psychological strength of wisdom in their old age (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2006,p. 354). Psychosexual development In the year 1964, Freud proposed a psychosexual theory in which he stated that to fulfill different biological needs, a child goes through five psychosexual stages and they are oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital (Sigelman & Rider, 2006, p. 31). Each stage brings a conflict between the biological instincts and the social demands (Sigelman & Rider, 2006, p.
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