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Protestant Ethics and Spirit of Capitalism by Weber

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K. Marx could not arise the theories of labour motivation and business activity because of two reasons: he did not pay enough attention to the human factor and in his concept economic forces have overshadowed the social and cultural ones. Though he is the author of the most advanced variant of the cost labour theory and he has devoted many pages to the description of the anatomy of labour process. However, the change of the out-of-date forms of capitalism by the newest was represented as the process of replacement of simple commodity manufacture actually on the capitalist, like the removing of the formal submission of work to the capital by the real one.

K. Marx could not open the plurality of forms of capitalism because according to him the modern capitalism was preceded not by the adventurous capitalism (or any other form), and simple commodity manufacture. The set of capitalisms do not enter to his unique scheme of evolution social-economic formations. Weber’ s scheme of capitalism representing is a universal and historical formation and covers the only so-called written history of mankind.

According to Weber, all over the world - China, India, Ancient Greece, Rome, Florence and in Europe – during three thousand years there was "capitalism of usurers, military suppliers, and taxes, large trading businessmen".   According to Marx, a capitalist era has begun in the XVI century and occupies much more modest piece of history - approximately three hundred years (including its early stage). The modern science - both economy, and sociology (it is enough to glance in the western monographs and textbooks) - considers, that capitalism is maximum three hundred years, but not three thousand.

What are other distinctive characteristics of modern capitalism by Weber? True capitalism and true can be only rational (in ordinary language - civilized) capitalism, it is focused on the extraction of profit not by injurious ways, but exclusively by means of exchange.  

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