Educator Fredrich Frobel supported and advocated a similar philosophy in the early 19th century – ‘ a child-centered’ process in Both philosopher and educator were expressing an alternate perspective or viewpoint to instructional and learning processes in education; one that advocated that “ learning took place internally (within the person) based on an individual’ s needs” (Weltsek-Medina; Blatner & Weiner 2008; Frobel 1800’ s). The responsibility of the teacher was not to transfer outside knowledge to the student, as were the practices of instruction. The role of the teacher was to help students explore intrinsic needs through the contexts of education.
“ In this way, students’ needs were placed at the center of the educational experience… the teacher filled the position of guide or facilitator. As a result of the new ‘ child-centered or student-centered’ approach in education, a discussion about educational drama arose in England” (Weltsek-Medina, Blatner & Weiner 2008). -- child/student-centered and focused on intrinsic needs. In the 20th century, a prominent teacher and drama education practitioner, Harriet-Finlay Johnson expressed that drama education focused too much and primarily on adult interpretations. In turn, aesthetic valuation of the ‘ product’ , production or performance of plays worked on in schools focused primarily on adult cognitive interpretation.
(Weltsek-Medina, Blatner & Weiner 2008; Johnson 1900’ s). Johnson advocated that the ‘ product’ – a play performance – should be by and for the student. Johnson proposed, “ … the student should create the product, the play, regardless of how an adult might perceive the outcome. A student’ s aesthetics and perspective should be the gauge through which the value of drama or theatrical experience be judged. It is in this way that drama and theatre education might move away from teacher-centered to student-centered” (Weltsek-Medina, Blatner & Weiner; Johnson 1900’ s).
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