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Problems of Philosophy

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Meanwhile, Arthur Schopenhauer deposed the intellect to enthrone the will as the new master and determinant of human character. There was no stopping Ethics from its metamorphosis as the 19th century Herbert Spencer announced the biological evolution of morals whose highest awareness encompassed “ the greatest length, breadth, and completeness of life. ” (Ethics I 22). And riding the crest of scientific and industrial revolution, Henri Bergson introduced dynamism to Ethics through the concept of elan vital in which the essence of the world is the movement of life, such that there is a spiritual quality to human mores and actions.

Meanwhile, Bertrand Russell and George Santayana respectively called for a scientific habit of mind and an analytical observation of moral patterns in human experience, rather in eternal moral laws. Finally, John Dewey carved the epitaph for the tombstone of traditional Ethics, describing it as a “ timid spinster to old-fashioned problems and ideas” abandoned by the empirical sciences which have entered the industrial world. Ethics continued to undergo change during the industrial period when the world began to feel the current of an imminent moral crisis.

And with the advent of today’ s technological age, we seem to be entering the threshold of an ethical breakdown beyond our capacity to control. And the dilemmas facing us are only varied, but also complex and interrelated, foremost of which is: After the Cold War, Superpowers continue to hold the world in a secure web, imposing the need for nations to adopt the democratic system of governance in contradiction to their sovereign rights to rule as they wish. Welfare for the disadvantaged. The majority must also carry the burden of heavy taxes to support health care for the poor and elders, education for special children, and other welfare packages for unproductive sectors. Depletion of natural resources.

Do industrialized nations have to bear much of the responsibility for interventions against world pollution and the depletion of the earth’ s resources such as air, water, and energy?

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